Forest, Fish and Fruit Model or Triple F model

ENTRY DATE: 22.04.2015 | LAST UPDATE: 22.04.2015


  • Coastal Regions
  • Sustainable farming systems


Applicable immediately

Technology Owners:

  • Community
  • Implementing agencies e.g. NGOs, UNDP
  • Local Government e.g. Department of Forest and Environment
  • Funders/Donors e.g GEF, UNDP

Needs Address

Measures against erosion, storm surges, flooding, inundation

Adaptation effects

  • Increases livelihood security, enhances food security and enables continued economic resilience
  • The productive system means excess crops can be sold for an additional income
  • Trees can provide a wind and wave barrier to protect against damage and erosion in coastal environments

Overview and Features

The forest, fish and fruit, or Triple F model is designed to enable adaptation for communities in coastal areas, who are suffering from increased flooding and salinity levels. It can be implemented inside and outside coastal embankments and in areas otherwise unused due to salinity encroachment hence provides a way to make barren coastal land productive again. Banks and ditches are constructed to enable the growth of fruit and timber trees and fish ponds. Interspersed with the fruit and timber trees high yielding vegetables, can also be grown on top of the mounds and along the banks of the ditches. As such, Triple F promotes integrated livelihood activities that enable short-, mid- and long-term adaptation.

Figure: Forest, Fish and Fruit Model (Source: UNDP, 2011)


  • Costs for construction
  • Costs for human resources
  • Costs for initial seed and fish
  • E.g. Total cost for UNDP project ‘“Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation” was USD 10,500,000 (UNDP, 2011c) – this project was estimated to have enabled 14,350 households infour Upazilas in the coastal districts of Barguna and Patuakhali (Western Region), Bhola (Central Region), Noakhali (Central Region) and Chittagong (Eastern Region) of Bangladesh (UNDP, 2011c)

Energy source

Energy needed for supporting livelihood

Ease of maintenance

Requires ongoing maintenance to maintain production

Technology performance

  • Has established a ‘green shield’ to protect vulnerable communities in Bangladesh (UNDP, 2011c)
  • E.g. In UNDP project ‘“Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation”, an estimated 14,350 households were able to employ the Triple F model to manage and protect their capital in a changing climate (UNDP, 2011c)


  • Training in establishing and maintaining the Triple F approach should be provided – in Bangladesh the training has been provided by the Department of Forest and Environment of the Government of Bangladesh
  • May require additional water supply to sustain ‘forest’ and ‘fruit’ elements in saline environments
  • Requires stakeholder collaboration

Co-benefit, suitability for developing countries

  • Promotes carbon sequestration
  • Aesthetically pleasing
  • Promotes community cohesion
  • Contributes to sustainable development
  • Transforms unusable coastal land into a productive environment
  • Timber provides both durable construction material and fuel wood for cooking and other energy needs
  • Requires land ownership or access for implementation
  • Integrates traditional methods, therefore readily adopted by communities
  • Can enable social empowerment and access to livelihood resources if managed appropriately
  • Community management ensures sustainability

Information Resources

Alam, M., Ahammad, R., Nandy, P. and Rahman, R. 2013. Coastal Livelihood Adaptation in Changing Climate: Bangladesh Experience of NAPA Priority Project Implementation. In Shaw, R., Mallick, F. and Islam, A. (eds) Climate Change Adaptation Actions in Bangladesh Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer. Available at: [22 January 2015]

UNDP, n.d. Forest, Fish and Fruit (FFF): A Mound-Ditch Model to Adapt to Climate Risks. Available at: [22 January 2015]

UNDP, 2011a. Communities Adapt! Finding new ways to fight Climate Change. UNDP Bangladesh. Available at: [22 January 2015]

UNDP, 2011b. A New Land Use Model: Forest Fruit Fish. Available at:  [19 March 2015]

UNDP, 2011c. Bangladesh Case Study: Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh (CBACC-CF Project). United Nations Development Programme. Available at: [07 April 2015]