Coastal Rehabilitation using Steel-Slag

ENTRY DATE: 23.04.2015 | LAST UPDATE: 23.04.2015


  • Coastal Regions
  • Sea grass beds


Applicable immediately

Technology Owners:

  • Steel Manufacturing Groups e.g. JFE Steel Group
  • Implementing Agencies e.g. POSCO
  • Government e.g. Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 

Needs Address

  • Measures against erosion, storm surges and flooding
  • Conservation of resources

Adaptation effects

  • Reduces coastal erosion, thereby securing coastal livelihoods
  • Conserves marine populations

Overview and Features

Scattering of steel slag onto sea sediments to form a protective layer of 0.5-1cm thickness in order to rehabilitate coast lines. Application of slag is found not to have any detrimental environmental effects. Development of new and more effective materials, including Ferroform and Triton are increasing the environmental suitability and effectiveness of this approach.


  • Costs for steel slag
  • Costs for application
  • Costs for design and planning processes with experts

Energy source

  • Fuel for implementing activities and equipment
  • Human resources 

Ease of maintenance

Flood, wave action and increased water temperature may have a detrimental effect on the steel-slag, therefore monitoring and maintenance is necessary

Technology performance

  • Due to the relatively recent use of this technology, careful monitoring is crucial
  • Steel slag has been found to increase diversity of marine ecosystems.  Bedrock biomass has increased by ten times the normal amount after the development of the sea forest using Triton in South Korea


  • Requires coordination between steel companies, marine experts and government, due to implementation in public areas
  • Should only be used in areas where steel-slag is being produced through industrial action anyway

Co-benefit, suitability for developing countries

  • Promotes beneficial recycling of metal waste
  • May not be feasible for poorer communities as the technology is new
  • The cost varies based on the quality, availability of steel slag as well as the area to be covered by the steel slag, and available expertise when applying the technology.

Information Resources

Chou, W-R., Tew, K.S. and Fang, L-S. 2002. Long-term monitoring of the demersal fish community in a steel-slag disposal area in the coastal waters of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59: S238-S242. Available  at: [22January 2015]

Jeong, I.J. 2010. Korea’s Approaches to Climate Change in the Fisheries Sector. Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Available at: [22 January 2015]

Park, K-S., Kim, H-S. and Park, K-Y. 2006. Restoration Technology of Contaminated Sediments in Coastal Environments using Steel-making Slag in Korea. OCEANS 2006 – Asia Pacific. Available at: [22 January 2015]

Kazuya, Y., Hirokazu, T. and Tatsuhito, T. New Applications of Iron and Steelmaking Slag Contributing to a Recycling-oriented Society. JFE Technical Report No. 8. Available at: [22 January 2015]

Mohammed, T.A., Aa, H., Nf, H., Ma, E.E. and 1, Khm, E-M. 2012. Coral Rehabilitation Using Steel Slag as a Substrate. International Journal of Environmental Protection 2(5):1-5. Available at: [22 January 2015]

POSCO, 2013. New, Breakthrough Way to Reserve Marine Life: POSCO’s Triton. Available at: [07 April 2015]

WBCSD, 2012. Restoring Korean coastal ecosystems with the byproducts of steelworks. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The Guardian. Available at: [07 April 2015]

Yasuhito, M., Yoshio, S., Satoru, S. and Kumi, O. 2009. Environment Improvement in the Sea Bottom by Steelmaking Slag. JFE Technical Report No. 8. Available at: [22 January 2015]